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      Talking about the Function and Importance of Construction Scheme from Shanghai 12.29 Accident

      (Summary description)TalkingabouttheFunctionandImportanceofConstructionSchemefromShanghai12.29AccidentInabroadsense,everyconstructionproject,likethegeneralindustrialproducts,isequivalenttomaking(building)aproduct.However,

      Talking about the Function and Importance of Construction Scheme from Shanghai 12.29 Accident

      (Summary description)TalkingabouttheFunctionandImportanceofConstructionSchemefromShanghai12.29AccidentInabroadsense,everyconstructionproject,likethegeneralindustrialproducts,isequivalenttomaking(building)aproduct.However,

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      Talking about the Function and Importance of Construction Scheme from Shanghai 12.29 Accident
      In a broad sense, every construction project, like the general industrial products, is equivalent to making (building) a product. However, compared with the production of general industrial products, construction projects have a corresponding and temporary construction site, which is similar to the construction site of the nature of factory action, because of its unique characteristics of singleton, mobility and long construction period.
      Because of the characteristics of construction singleton and mobility, every construction project should choose the appropriate machinery and labor organization, choose the construction method and draw up the technical scheme; because of the long construction period, the supply time of various labor force, machinery and many materials is also relatively long. Together, the above contents form a construction organization design. The basic content of construction organization design usually includes the analysis of engineering general situation and construction conditions, construction scheme, construction technology, construction progress plan, general construction plan, economic analysis and construction preparation plan. Among them, the construction plan, which is compiled by subdivisions or special projects, is used to guide the specific construction process, including its important and specific construction methods and technological requirements. In project management, compiling a complete and pertinent construction plan, and organizing and implementing it in accordance with the content of the plan in the actual construction process, has a very real and real role in controlling project cost, quality and avoiding accidents.
      On December 29, 2018, a serious local earthwork collapse accident occurred in Minhang District, Shanghai, which resulted in the death of three workers. The accident investigation report has been published. The accident involved Shanghai Jianggong Qijian Group Co., Ltd., the general contractor, Shanghai Julian Construction and Development Co., Ltd., the specialized subcontractor, Shanghai Xingfa Construction Labor Co., Ltd., the labor subcontractor, Shanghai Jin Bund Fuzheng Engineering Consulting Co., Ltd. and Shanghai Wanyun Real Estate Co., Ltd.
      According to the accident investigation report, the direct technical reason for the accident is that the excavation of temporary slope in the pit did not carry out graded slope grading according to the requirements of special construction scheme, and the actual slope gradient did not meet the requirements of technical standards, resulting in the occurrence of soil landslides. The indirect reasons are that the main responsibility and safety responsibility system of the relevant units are not implemented; the employees are not educated and urged to strictly implement the safety production rules and regulations and safety operation rules of the units; the relevant personnel fail to fulfill their safety production management responsibilities, and fail to supervise and inspect the safety production work of the units, so as to eliminate the hidden dangers of accidents in time. The organization and management organization of the project Department of the general contractor unit is not perfect, it does not allocate enough personnel according to the requirements, and the technical handover is in the form; the professional subcontractor is weak in the management of excavation operation and fails to provide effective safety technical handover to the workers before the operation; the labor subcontractor is not in place for the safety management of the workers, lacks awareness of the known safety risks, and employers are not standardized, etc. Managers are not in place to supervise the safety management work of construction units. When it is found that the construction units do not follow the special construction plan, they fail to carry out the supervision duties according to the relevant provisions. Finally, a total of 30 persons responsible for the accident were dealt with, including the project manager of the general contractor unit, the person in charge of the project site of the professional subcontractor unit and the project safety supervision of the supervision unit, which will be investigated for criminal responsibility.
      The total area of the foundation pit is about 27,200 m2 and the perimeter is about 700 m. The excavation depth of the first floor is 5.40 m, and that of the second floor is 8.40 M. According to document [2018] 31 of the construction quality, it belongs to a large-scale and dangerous project. The Project Department of the general contracting unit worked out the foundation pit construction plan in September 2018. On September 30th, experts were organized to demonstrate the plan. On November 7th, the general contracting unit approved the plan. On November 9th, the construction and supervision unit approved the plan. In the scheme, it is clear that the thickness of excavation in layers should not be greater than 4m, the slope of temporary slope should not be greater than 1:1.5, and the graded slope should be laid down when the excavation height is greater than 4m. The compilation, demonstration and audit of the whole construction plan conform to the requirements of laws and regulations. However, after the accident, the actual site survey results show that the slope height is 5 m, the depth of the bottom of the slope is 5 m, the slope ratio is 1:1, and the slope to the end is not graded. It shows that the actual construction has not been carried out in accordance with the demonstrated construction plan, and the relevant parties have not given real restraint and rectification.
      In the above-mentioned cases, although the content of the foundation pit construction plan and its compilation, demonstration, examination and approval process all meet the requirements of laws and regulations, it is not thoroughly implemented in the implementation stage, resulting in a major accident involving three deaths, and three responsible persons will be prosecuted for criminal responsibility. The case also warns us that the formulation of the plan must be targeted and realistic. Regardless of the type of construction organization design, if it is copied and not compiled according to the actual situation of the project, on the one hand, it loses the practical guiding significance of the project, on the other hand, if an accident occurs, the compiler, examiner and approver must bear the corresponding responsibility. In the construction stage, we must carry out according to the content of the plan. Technical submission should not be mere formality. On-site supervision and inspection should be done well. The problems found must be tracked, rectified and implemented to form a closed loop. (Wu Donghui)

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